Nikos Kazantzakis – Overlooked?

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Nikos Kazantzakis (Greek: ????? ???????????) (February 18, 1883, Heraklion, Crete, Ottoman Empire – October 26, 1957, Freiburg, Germany) was arguably the most important and most translated Greek writer and philosopher of the 20th century. Yet he did not become truly well known until the 1964 release of the Michael Cacoyannis film Zorba the Greek, based on Kazantzakis’ novel whose English translation has the same title.

Crete, when Kazantzakis was born, was still under Ottoman rule, and had experienced repeated uprisings in attempting to achieve independence from the Ottoman empire and to unite with Greece.

In 1902, Kazantzakis began the study of law at the University of Athens, then went to Paris in 1907 to study philosophy, where he studied under Henri Bergson.

Upon his return to Greece, he began translating works of philosophy. In 1914, he met Angelos Sikelianos. Together they travelled for two years in places where Greek Christian culture flourished, largely influenced by the enthusiastic nationalism of Sikelianos.

Tomb of N. Kazantzakis in Heraklion.Kazantzakis married Galatea Alexiou in 1911; they divorced in 1926. He married Eleni Samiou in 1945. Between 1922 and his death in 1957, he sojourned in Paris and Berlin (from 1922 to 1924), Italy, Russia (in 1925), Spain (in 1932), and then later in Cyprus, Aegina, Egypt, Mount Sinai, Czechoslovakia, Nice (he later bought a villa in nearby Antibes, in the Old Town section near the famed seawall), China, and Japan.

While in Berlin, where the political situation was explosive, Kazantzakis discovered communism and became an admirer of Lenin. He never became a consistent communist, but visited the Soviet Union and stayed with the Left Opposition politician and writer Victor Serge. He witnessed the rise of Joseph Stalin, and became disillusioned with Soviet-style communism. Around this time, his earlier nationalist beliefs were gradually replaced by a more universal ideology.

In 1945, he became the leader of a small party on the noncommunist left, and entered the Greek government as Minister without Portfolio. He resigned this post the following year.

In 1946, The Society of Greek Writers recommended that Kazantzakis and Angelos Sikelianos be awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. In 1957, he lost the Prize to Albert Camus by one vote. Camus later said that Kazantzakis deserved the honour “a hundred times more” than himself.

Late in 1957, even though suffering from leukemia, he set out on one last trip to China and Japan. Falling ill on his return flight, he was transferred to Freiburg, Germany, where he died. He is buried on the wall surrounding the city of Heraklion, because the Orthodox Church ruled out his being buried in a cemetery. His epitaph reads “I hope for nothing. I fear nothing. I am free.” (??? ?????? ??????. ?? ???????? ??????. ????? ????????.)

His first work was the 1906 narrative Serpent and Lily (???? ??? ?????), which he signed with the pen name Karma Nirvami. In 1909, Kazantzakis wrote a one-act play titled Comedy, which remarkably resonates existential themes that become prevalent much later in Post-World War II Europe by writers like Sartre and Camus. In 1910, after his studies in Paris, he wrote a tragedy “The Master Builder” (? ?????????????), based on a popular Greek folkloric myth.

Kazantzakis considered his huge epic poem (33,333 verses long) The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel to be his most important work. Begun in 1924, he wrote it seven times before publishing it in 1938. According to another Greek author, Pantelis Prevelakis, “it has been a superhuman effort to record his immense spiritual experience.” Following the structure of Homer’s Odyssey, it is divided into 24 rhapsodies.

His most famous novels include Zorba the Greek (1946) (in Greek ???? ??? ???????? ??? ????? ??????); The Greek Passion (1948) (UK title Christ Recrucified) (Greek: ? ??????? ???????????????); Captain Michalis (1950) (UK title Freedom and Death)(Greek: ??????? ???????); The Last Temptation of Christ (1951) (Greek: ? ?????????? ?????????); and Saint Francis (1956) (UK title God’s Pauper: St. Francis of Assisi) (Greek: ? ????????? ??? ????). Report to Greco (1961) (Greek: ??????? ???? ??????), containing both autobiographical and fictional elements, summed up his philosophy as the “Cretan Glance.”

Since his youth, Kazantzakis was spiritually restless. Tortured by metaphysical and existential concerns, he sought relief in knowledge, in travelling, in contact with a diverse set of people, in every kind of experience. The influence of Friedrich Nietzsche on his work is evident, especially in his atheism and sympathy for the superman (Übermensch) concept. However, religious concerns also haunted him. To attain a union with God, Kazantzakis entered a monastery for a brief stay of six months.

In 1927 Kazantzakis published in Greek his “Spiritual Exercises,” known as The Saviors of God, which he had composed in Berlin in 1923. The book was translated and published in English in 1960.

The figure of Jesus was ever present in his thoughts, from his youth to his last years. The Christ of The Last Temptation of Christ shares Katzantzakis’ anguished metaphysical and existential concerns, seeking answers to haunting questions and often torn between his sense of duty and cause on one side and his own human needs to enjoy life, to love and to be loved, and to have a family. A tragic figure who at the end sacrifices his own human hopes for a wider cause, Kazantzakis’ Christ is not an infallible, passionless deity but rather a passionate and emotional human being who has been assigned a mission, with a meaning that he is struggling to understand and that often requires him to face his conscience and his emotions and ultimately to sacrifice his own life for its fulfilment. He is subject to doubts, fears and even guilt. In the end he is the Son of Man, a man whose internal struggle represents that of humanity.

Many Greek religious conservatives condemned Kazantzakis’ work.His interesting reply was: “You gave me a curse, Holy fathers, I give you a blessing: may your conscience be as clear as mine and may you be as moral and religious as I” before the Greek Orthodox church excommunicated him in 1955. (Greek: “??? ?????? ??? ??????, ????? ???????, ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????: ??? ??????? ?? ‘??? ? ????????? ??? ???? ??????, ??? ????? ? ???? ??? ??? ?? ‘??? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ???”).

The Last Temptation was included by the Roman Catholic Church in the Index of Prohibited Books. Kazantzakis’ reaction was to send a telegram to the Vatican quoting the Christian writer Tertullian: Ad tuum, Domine, tribunal appello (English: “I lodge my appeal at your tribunal, Lord”, Greek: “??? ?????????? ??? ???? ?????, ? K????”). Many cinemas banned the Martin Scorsese film, which was released in 1988 and based on this novel[citation needed].

In Kazantzakis’ day, the market for material published in modern Greek was quite small. Kazantzakis also wrote in modern (demotic) Greek, which made his writings all the more controversial. Translations of his books into other European languages did not appear until his old age. Hence he found it difficult to earn a living by writing, which led him to write a great deal, including a large number of translations from French, German, and English, and curiosities such as French fiction and Greek primary school texts, mainly because he needed the money. Some of this “popular” writing was nevertheless distinguished, such as his books based on his extensive travels, which appeared in the series “Travelling” (????????????) which he founded. These books on Italy, Egypt, Sinai, Japan, China, and England became masterpieces of Greek travel literature.

Notable Quotes:
Free yourself from race also; fight to live through the whole struggle of man.

I said to the almond tree: “Speak to me of God.”
and the almond tree blossomed.

Every perfect traveller always creates the country where he travels.

Source: Wikipedia

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